To create an absolute reference in Excel, add a dollar sign before the row and column. For example, an absolute reference to A1 looks like this: An absolute reference for the range A1:A10 looks like this:


In the example shown, the formula in D5 will change like this when copied down column D: Note that the absolute reference to C2, which hold the hourly rate does not change, while the reference to hours in C5 changes with each new row.

Toggle between absolute and relative addresses

When entering formulas, you can use a keyboard shortcut to toggle through relative and absolute reference options, without typing dollar signs ($) manually. Author

Dave Bruns

Hi - I’m Dave Bruns, and I run Exceljet with my wife, Lisa. Our goal is to help you work faster in Excel. We create short videos, and clear examples of formulas, functions, pivot tables, conditional formatting, and charts.