Note most arguments are required, but some are optional. In Excel, optional arguments are denoted with square brackets. For example, the fourth argument in VLOOKUP function, range_lookup, is optional and appears in square brackets as shown above. Finally, many Excel functions accept multiple optional arguments, which are denoted with an ellipses (…) For example, the COUNTIFS function accepts multiple and optional range and criteria pairs, which can be represented like this: This means you can optionally add additional arguments in pairs: range3/criteria3, range4/criteria4, etc. Author

Dave Bruns

Hi - I’m Dave Bruns, and I run Exceljet with my wife, Lisa. Our goal is to help you work faster in Excel. We create short videos, and clear examples of formulas, functions, pivot tables, conditional formatting, and charts.