The SCAN uses the LAMBDA function to apply the formula logic required. The LAMBDA is applied to each value, and the result from SCAN is an array of results with the same dimensions as the original array. Like the REDUCE function, SCAN iterates over all elements in an array and performs a calculation on each element. However, while REDUCE returns a single value, SCAN returns an array of values.  The SCAN function takes three arguments: initial_value, array, and lambda. Initial_value is the initial seed value to use for the first result. Initial_value is optional. Array is the array to scan and lambda is a custom LAMBDA function to perform on each element of array.

LAMBDA structure

The SCAN function uses the LAMBDA function to apply the formula logic needed.  The structure of the LAMBDA used inside of SCAN looks like this: The first argument, a, is the accumulator used to create intermediate values. The accumulator begins as the initial_value provided to SCAN and changes as the SCAN function loops over the elements in array and applies a calculation. The v argument represents the value of each element in array. Calculation is the formula that creates the intermediate values that will appear in the final result. Note: SCAN returns an array of intermediate results. See the MAP function to process each element in an array individually and return an array of non-intermediate results.


In the formula below, SCAN is used to create a running total an array with three values: In the LAMBDA function, a is the initial_value given to SCAN (zero), and v represents the individual elements in array. The LAMBDA runs one time for each element in array, and at each iteration the value of v is added to the accumulator. SCAN returns the array {1,3,6} as a final result.  In the worksheet shown above, the formula in D5 is: The result is a running sum of values in the range B5:B16.

Text values

To work with text values, set the initial_value to an empty string (""). The formula below creates a running concatenation of an array: Notice that because the incoming array has three values, the resulting array also has three values.

Dave Bruns

Hi - I’m Dave Bruns, and I run Exceljet with my wife, Lisa. Our goal is to help you work faster in Excel. We create short videos, and clear examples of formulas, functions, pivot tables, conditional formatting, and charts.